Esch-sur-Sûre Castle, locally also known under its German name Burg Esch-an-der-Sauer, lies in the small village with the same name, south of the town of Wiltz in Luxembourg. The village is situated in a sharp curve of the meandering Sûre river.
Esch-sur-Sûre Castle was probably built by a certain Megingaud, somewhere around 927, after he had acquired the lands through an exchange with the abbey of Stavelot. He built the still existing square keep.
The brothers Heinrich I and Godfrid I, Lords of Esch an der Sauer at the end of the 11th century took part in the First Crusade in 1097. This kept them from undertaking building works at their castle. Heinrich died in Mesopotamia.
The two last lords in the line of Counts of Esch-sur-Sûre enlarged the castle in Gothic style in the 13th century. During the 15th century, because of the spreading use of gunpowder, a wall with two towers was built around the village. Parts of this wall still exist. The round watchtower, named the Lochturm opposite the keep was also built in the 15th century.
The decline of Esch-sur-Sûre Castle began in middle of the 16th century. After the French troops of King Louis XIV had taken the fortress of Luxembourg city at the end of the 17th century, they started to dismantle the castles in Luxembourg. Esch-sur-Sûre Castle also suffered that fate. Because its lords mostly resided abroad the castle fell into disrepair during the 18th century.
In the middle of the 19th century the castle came into private hands. When the French writer Victor Hugo visited Esch-sur-Sûre Castle in 1871 the castle was still inhabited by several families. In 1906 the Romanesque castle chapel was restored.
At present the ruins of this small but nice castle in this friendly village are freely accessible at daytime.